ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES AN ADVANCED RESOURCE BOOK

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English For Academic Purposes An Advanced Resource Book

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English for Academic Purposes: An Advanced Resource Book (Routledge Applied Linguistics) [Paperback] [] 1 Ed. Ken Hyland on venxilinapsee.tk * FREE*. Written by an experienced teacher and researcher in the field, English for Academic Purposes is an essential resource for students and researchers of Applied. English for academic purposes: An advanced resource book. London: Routledge. Pp. , $ (paper). Article in Canadian Modern Language Review/ La.

The text is divided into three sections - 'Introduction,' 'Extension,' and 'Exploration' - each of which explores the following three themes: conceptions and controversies, literacies and practices, and design and delivery.

The first section of the text introduces the major concepts, terms, techniques, and contextual factors related to EAP. The four units within each theme include tasks for reflection on topics, teaching practices, and personal experience, as well as for the evaluation of controversies and issues in the field. In the 'Extension' section, Hyland has compiled 20 excerpts from journal articles and books that elaborate on the themes introduced in the first part of the text.

Most of the excerpts, by influential authors such as Benesch, Flowerdew, Johns, Pennycook, and Swales, are three to four pages in length; all are accompanied by pre-, while-, and post-reading tasks. This section provides stimulating discussions of current topics of interest in EAP.

Although the extracts themselves are very short, an appendix offers an annotated list of four to five books per unit for further reading. The 'Exploration' section offers a wide array of reflective and field research tasks for students to carry out. One potential problem area is that of peer review. Carson and Nelson Are these factors only likely to impact the writing of L2 students? How might you accommodate these differences in your teaching and assessments?

Connor, ; Hinkel, In a review of seventy-two studies comparing research into first- and second- language writing, for example, Silva These conclusions have been supported by a range of studies comparing features of academic genres across cultures, producing the generalization that, compared with other languages, Anglo-American academic English tends to: It is unwise, however, to attribute all aspects of L2 performance to L1 writing practices. There is a tendency in this research to identify cultures with national entities, thus emphasizing a predictable sharedness within cultures and differences across them e.

Atkinson, Students have identities beyond the language and culture they were born into and we should avoid the tendency to stereotype them according to cultural dichotomies. We cannot simply read off cultural preferences from the surface of texts: Students are not merely cultural types and it is perhaps a major task of EAP teachers to disabuse subject teachers of such assumptions.

Teachers can take a number of different insights from contrastive rhetoric. This encourages us to see the effects of different practices where we might otherwise only see individual inadequacies. Essentially, genre is a term for grouping texts together, representing how writers typically use language to respond to recurring situations. This is because writing and speaking are based on expectations: This unit introduces some of the key ideas of genre in EAP teaching and research, beginning with a brief characterization of the term.

Now group them in various ways, such as whether they are spoken or written, their degree of formality, similarity of purposes, type of audience, etc. Similarly, analysts have opted to examine either the actions of individuals as they create particular texts or the distribution of particular features across a range of texts to see genres as collections of rhetorical choices Hyland, One way of characterizing genres is in terms of the ways broad social purposes are systematically linked with context through lexical and grammatical features Christie and Martin, Parentheses indicate an optional stage.

SECTION Introduction A seen as narratives, recounts, arguments and expositions, and each genre is composed of a series of stages which contribute to the overall purpose of the genre. Table A6. Thus a research article might comprise several elemental genres such as an exposition, a discussion and a rebuttal.

This allows teachers to gradually expose students to more complex ways of expressing a genre. A procedure, for instance, consists of a series of steps which shows how to achieve a goal and may be based on simple imperative clauses using familiar action verbs and everyday objects.

Explanations, on the other hand, are more demanding because they typically require students to use sequential, causal and conditional conjunctions. Each genre in Table 6. Not only are these kinds of meanings more highly valued in academic settings, but students need to draw on more complex resources to write them effectively.

But because genres are seen as guiding frameworks rather than recurring linguistic structures, these theorists are sceptical about their pedagogic potential. They also see classrooms as distorting genres by transforming them into artefacts for study rather than resources for communication Freedman and Adam, Swales argues that these metaphors offer a rich and multifaceted view of genre which captures its complex and varied nature.

Task A6. Can you elaborate this metaphor and say why you have chosen it? How easy do you think it would be to operationalize the metaphor in your EAP practice? Focusing on the communicative needs of particular academic groups involves examining what these groups do with language, starting with the names members themselves give to their practices, such as essays, dissertations and lectures.

In this way they combine some of the aspects of the approach to genre taken by SFG, by the New Rhetoricians and by Swales. Some of these genres are shown in Table A6. These recurrent classes of communicative events are the genres that orchestrate verbal life. These genres link the past and the present, and so balance forces for tradition and innovation. They structure the roles of individuals within wider frameworks, and further assist those individuals with the actualisation of their communicative plans and purposes.

Swales, It therefore offers teachers a powerful way of understanding and, hopefully, addressing the communicative needs of their students. Some genre analysis in EAP operationalizes these ideas about genre by examining representative text samples to identify salient text features, such as recurring tenses, cohesion, modality, etc. Both moves and steps may be optional, embedded in others, repeated, and may have constraints on the sequence in which they occur.

A simple example of this structure is shown in Table A6. Which of them would be useful to your students? What would you like them to know about this genre? Hyland One example is the extent to which writers typically employ self-mention.

While impersonality is frequently cited as a key feature of academic discourse, not all disciplines observe this convention. Similarly, the ways research is presented orally can differ across disciplines, with different argument structures employed by engineers and biologists, for instance Dudley-Evans, By exploring these conventions with students, teachers can help them see the options available to them when communicating in their disciplines.

Academic texts, particularly in the sciences, have always been multimodal, but textbooks and articles are now far more heavily influenced by graphic design than ever before and the growing challenge to the page by the screen as the dominant medium of communication means that images are ever more important in meaning making.

This more integrated perspective, which deals with all the means we have of making meanings, is called multimodality.

Researchers adopting this view consider the specific ways of configuring the world which different modes offer and draw attention to consequent shifts in authority, in forms of reading and in forms of human engagement with the social and natural world Kress, ; Kress and Van Leeuwen , The examples in Figures A6. Like verbal communication, visual representation is a semiotic system, or system of signs, which varies with language, culture and genre.

Kress and van Leeuwen note that: Simplicity is. Miller , for example, shows that while visual elements in the popular press function largely to attract the reader to the article and to explain rather than prove, visuals in academic texts are mainly arguments, following formal conventions organized for maximum persuasion and access to new information.

This is because while arguments are based on plausible, and well constructed, interpretations of data, they ultimately rest on findings, and these are often pre- sented in visual form. Visuals thus buttress arguments and signal the importance of the article itself.

Some analyses take an SFL approach and claim there is a grammar inherent in images, just as there is in writing, based on choices to communicate particular meanings.

Kress and Van Leeuwen , for instance, show how visuals com- municate meaning through such forms as point of view whose perspective is taken , given-new structures understood versus new information , visual transitivity who is doing what to whom , deixis then and now , and modality is it true or false?

In particular they encourage their students to consider: The structure is anchored to a rigid substrate grid at three joints A1, A2 and A3. Force F is exerted at a joint D1 distal to the substrate [27] and [36]. Thus writing a review article or a textbook may have little career or academic value to many academics, while writing scholarly monographs can attract credit to academics in the human- ities and research articles to those working in the sciences.

Similarly, the number of genres an academic participates in appears to increase with seniority, with a wider range of occluded administrative and evaluative genres, such as course or programme appraisals, professional references and referee reports, being taken on by individuals as they climb the academic ladder.

Such sets, in other words, are temporary phenomena relating to individual positionings at a given time. For teachers these sets and sequences are not only a useful way of contextualizing what is to be learnt by basing instruction on how genres are sequenced and used in real-world events, they also help to integrate reading, speaking and writing activities naturally in the classroom.

For example, genres sometimes follow each other in a predictable chronological order, such as when applying for funding: In other circumstances one genre may be less dependent on the outcome of another, so that an activity unfolds with genres employed concurrently as a logical system.

An example of this is the genres involved in writing an academic assignment Figure A6. Read library catalogues Read source texts W rite notes Read assig nment Listen to lectures W rite notes from lecture Collate notes, formulate plan Talk to friends and tutors W rite notes from conversations and draft essay Search web for information W rite notes from W eb sites Figure A6.

This idea refers to the notion of intertextuality Bakhtin, and the fact that every utterance reacts to other utterances in that domain. We now acknowledge that little that is said is original; every utterance transforms, addresses and accommodates earlier utterances in some way.

In other words, genre networks are the totality of genres employed in a particular domain at any one time. While this totality is constantly changing, it nevertheless links text users to a network of prior texts according to their group membership, and provides a system of coding options for making meanings.

Represent this constellation as a diagram to show the relationship of the different genres to each other, representing either their sequence or importance in that setting. A corpus is a collection of naturally occurring texts used for linguistic study. While a corpus does not contain any new theories about language, it can offer fresh insights on familiar, but perhaps unnoticed, features of language use.

This is because a corpus is a more reliable guide to what language is like than human intuition. While we all have experience of certain genres, much of this remains hidden, so that, for example, even the best teachers are often unable to explain to their students why some phrasing or expression is preferred over another in a given context.

Table of contents for English for academic purposes : an advanced resource book / Ken Hyland.

A corpus, in other words, provides an evidence-based approach to language teaching. This makes the approach ideal for studying the features of academic genres as it means we can describe them more accurately so students can learn to use them more effectively. As Sinclair Task A7.

What kinds of texts would be most useful to your students? How would you use a corpus in your course? This allows us to predict the ways that other representative examples of the genre will be organized and the features it is likely to contain. Corpus analyses therefore often begin by automatically counting the frequency of words or grammatical patterns in order to characterize the domain under study.

Hunston, The most frequent words in any corpus are therefore grammatical words, but working down frequency lists soon reveals key items in that genre, enabling the teacher to identify and teach basic items in their classes. Table A7.

These are based on the idea that vocabulary falls into three main groups Nation, But while general academic word lists are useful for EAP materials developers, we need to be cautious about them.

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Individual items tend to have different frequencies and meanings in different disciplines and genres, encouraging us to look beyond common core features and the autonomous views of literacy that such lists assume to recognize that contextual factors are crucial to language choices.

More sophisticated information can be gathered using software which counts not only words, but also grammatical features. By a semi-automatic procedure known as tagging, codes can be added to each word indicating its part of speech, so, for instance, the word research is tagged as either a noun or a verb each time it occurs, allowing much more detailed analyses of target genres.

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In contrast, second-person pronouns, direct questions, present-tense verbs, private verbs feel, think and that deletions are less frequent because of their more interactive character. A tagged corpus can assist teachers in deciding on the relative merits of recommending past or present tense when teaching report genres, for example, or whether it is more useful to focus on active or passive constructions in essay writing. Frequency counts are also a useful way of determining the features which are over- used or under-used in the writing of L2 students in given genres.

Research by Granger and Hinkel on learner corpora, for instance, shows that L2 academic essays contain a smaller range of vocabulary than L1 essays and are characterized by stylistic features more typical of informal speech than written discourse.

Nattinger and De Carrico, Milton Do you think it would be more useful for students to discover word or pattern frequencies for themselves or to be given this information by teachers? A concordance brings together all instances of a search word or phrase in the corpus as a list of unconnected lines of text with the node word in the centre together with a sample of its linguistic environments. These lines therefore give instances of language use when read horizontally and evidence of system when read vertically.

This makes it possible for the user to see regularities in its use that might otherwise be missed. Thus in the study of dissertation acknowledgements mentioned earlier we discovered a strong tendency to use the noun thanks in preference to other expressions of gratitude Hyland and Tse, Figure A7.

In addition, the results show that expressions of certainty occur more often than those expressing doubt. This kind of information can help student writers not only to make use of this collocation in their own writing, but to use it in effective ways.

In addition, corpus evidence offers a range of information for EAP teachers and learners. For instance, collocation patterns can reveal features such as the following: Similarly the word rife has unfavourable semantic prosody Partington, To summarize, the computer analysis of text corpora is an invaluable tool for EAP teachers.

It indicates the high-frequency words, phrases and grammatical structures which characterize a given genre or discipline and reveals how these are typically used in patterns of collocation, or association, with other words or phrases. This, in turn, can help teachers to better understand the texts they teach and students to become more aware of the options available to them when communicating in their disciplines. Think of a task you could give to a group of students using a corpus.

What problems might students have with concordancing as a classroom tool and how might you overcome those problems? While acknowledging that language is always an important part of such settings, ethnographic studies take a wider view to consider the physical and experiential contexts in which language is used.

This unit describes the broad outlines of such approaches and indicates some of the work that has been done in EAP contexts. Task A8. What aspects of such contexts would it be useful for EAP teachers to know about and how could the information be used?

Originating in anthropology and sociology, this approach involves gathering naturally occurring data under normal conditions from numerous sources, typically over a period of time, without interfering with the context in any way. Such approaches thus offer the possibility of rich, finely detailed descriptions of EAP contexts and how they influence the discourses of students, teachers and researchers.

Pole and Morrison Clearly these features are rather loose and are perhaps not exclusive to ethnography, hence my preference for the term ethnographically oriented, but they point to what this kind of research seeks to do, namely: Studies of this kind can also be on a larger scale.

These addressed their views on the nature and aims of academic literacies, the conditions surrounding the writing process, and their understandings of institutional literacy demands e. Plum, The textual, processual and practice-focused data not only revealed disciplinary differences in literacy practices but provided insights into how higher education proceeds through competence in an institutional form of literacy which is not shared by all students and staff.

The study bril- liantly captures the different practices, genres and cultures of these disciplines and reveals the rich complexity which distinguishes academic activity. Through a variety of qualitative methods we get a sense of the individual voices and the kinds of insights which close observation and detailed analysis can reveal.

A variety of data collection methods lend themselves to ethnography as all methods, even quantitative ones, have the capacity to be ethnographic if applied with the goal of understanding the distinctions that are meaningful to the members of a given community. More commonly, methods which involve researchers getting close to the activity and which prioritize rich understandings are employed.

These include: Analysis of these various kinds of data ideally occurs simultaneously and con- tinuously as a key aspect of the research design and process. There are a range of perspectives on handling data e. For instance, a researcher will bring a set of assumptions about the phenomenon under study to the design of an instrument, using a pre-coded sheet to observe behaviour, for example by simply checking pre-defined boxes at fixed intervals or every time a type of behaviour occurs rather than writing a full narrative of events as they unfold.

This is achieved in three main ways: Conclusions are developed using a range of data sources, research methods or investigators. Once categorized, patterns can be looked for to determine which categories are singular, regular or variant.

Ethnographically oriented research still struggles for recognition as an appropriate research methodology in some disciplines and in EAP contexts teachers may find it hard to collect and analyse multiple data sources while engaged in a full teaching load. The methodology does, however, encourage a pragmatic approach to research where the aims and focus of a study determine the methods to be used, so the researcher adopts whatever tools seem most effective in the time available.

To what extent would 1 questionnaires and 2 interviews be appropriate methods of investigation? What other kinds of data might you also need?

Typically, this research seeks to show the effects of local settings on writers, as Prior The research attempted to reveal the assumptions of lecturers and students to overcome cultural conflicts in their perceptions of lectures and improve lecture effectiveness.

They found that while both groups recognized the importance of lectures, the students saw them as having the purpose of trans- ferring information while lecturers regarded them as vehicles for analysis and critical thinking.

On the other hand, lecturers failed to understand the noisy inattentiveness of students who were unable to adapt to the disciplinary permissiveness of these settings. Her results show both the value students place on feedback and the ways that they responded to and used it in their subsequent writing.

Students incorporated most of the usable teacher feedback when revising, but this varied according to their individual needs and prior experiences, while a considerable amount of the revisions originated from peer or external sources. Despite different stances on feedback, the teachers tended to concentrate on form which encouraged formal revisions but did not appear to have a long-term developmental effect.

In contrast, feedback which addressed academic issues appeared to be transferred to later essays.

English for Academic Purposes An Advanced Resource Book

These brief descriptions can do no more than point to some of the ways ethno- graphically oriented research has contributed to our understanding of academic discourses and practices. By requiring researchers to put away their preconceptions and understand situations in their own terms, this research has produced rich, detailed descriptions of particular personal, social and institutional contexts of communication, expanding our understanding of what factors can impinge on academic practices.

In turn, these insights can inform our understandings of academic contexts, how we see our students and what we do in the classroom. What feature of teaching and learning would you most like to understand in greater detail and how would you collect data to research it?

Students cannot acquire everything they need to learn at once nor can they learn effectively from a random collection of exercises and assignments. So, while EAP is taught in a huge variety of settings all over the world, each with its own local constraints, available resources, teacher preferences and learner goals, any EAP course requires teachers to: This chapter introduces these issues of planning and classroom practices.

In what ways might they be similar and different? It means going beyond grammar and vocabulary to prepare students for their future academic experiences while, at the same time, recognizing the importance of affective, personal and social expectations of learning. For many this awareness of need is the central element of EAP course design — and the feature which distinguishes it from general language teaching Dudley-Evans and St John, ; Hutchison and Waters, Today needs is a much broader term and also includes linguistic and learning factors as well as a sense that these should not be uncritically accepted as the sole determinant of instruction.

Task A9. What priority should be given to non-language needs and to the views of other interested stakeholders, such as subject disciplines, the institution, employers, funding bodies, etc.? It is a continuous process, since we modify our teaching as we come to learn more about our students, and in this way it actually shades into evaluation — the means of establishing the effectiveness of a course.

Brindley, ; Brown, Needs analysis is sometimes seen as a kind of educational technology designed to measure goals with precision and accountability Berwick, But this actually gives the process a misleading impartiality, suggesting that teachers can simply read off a course from an objective situation.

But, as most teachers will know, needs are not always easy to determine and, as I shall return to below, mean different things to different participants.

It might be more accurate, then, to see needs as jointly constructed between teachers and learners. It is usual to distinguish between present situation analysis and target situation analysis cf. Dudley-Evans and St John, This kind of data can be both objective age, proficiency, prior learning experiences and subjective self-perceived needs, strengths and weaknesses.

This relates to communication needs rather than learning needs and involves mainly objective and product-oriented data: Table A9. Breen and Candlin, where the course is constructed jointly by teachers and learners, such as the TalkBase programme discussed below. Behind every successful EAP course there is a continuous process of questioning and revision to check the original results, evaluate the effectiveness of the course and revise objectives.

Needs analysis, then, is always dynamic and ongoing. Why do learners need the language? Compulsory or optional Examination, postgraduate or undergraduate Whether obvious need exists course, etc. What they want to learn from the course Lab reports, essays, seminars, lectures, etc. How do learners learn? What is the typical structure of these genres? Learning background and experiences Move analyses, salient features, genre sets, etc. Concept of teaching and learning Methodological and materials preferences What will the content areas be?

Preferred learning styles and strategies Academic subject, specialism within discipline, secondary school subjects Who are the learners? Sociocultural background Relationship: What do learners know? Physical setting: What might be the best ways to collect this information and from whom should it be collected? By analogy with needs analysis, deliberation on the kinds of teaching and goals that the learning context offers is sometimes referred to as means analysis Holliday and Cook, and involves consideration of the teachers, methods, materials, facilities and relationship of the course to its immediate environment.

One important constraint is, of course, what can be realistically achieved within the course. Teachers also have to consider how the course relates to other courses and to the wider curriculum.

There may, for instance, be opportunities for interesting collaborative work with disciplinary courses or chances to inject creativity into what seems to be an isolated and exam- driven syllabus. The availability of resources to support a proposed course may also present challenges to syllabus developers, particularly if this involves importing textbooks from overseas, and teachers may have to rely on their own materials development skills to overcome delays, plug gaps, and make texts and tasks relevant to local conditions.

This, of course, highlights the key contextual resource in the success of any programme: Institutional factors also need to be taken into account, as these differ considerably in the priority they give to EAP, so that while some schools and institutions lavish resources on language work and give credit for attending EAP courses, others treat it as a marginal and voluntary element of the curriculum.

Poorly paid, overworked and micro-managed teachers are unlikely to inject much enthusiasm into their work or transmit positive values to learners. This is especially true as the shift in teacher education programmes in recent years from a focus on the teacher as a conduit for methods towards more autonomous roles has meant that teachers now see themselves more as self-directed and independent practitioners.

Part of this involves an evaluative stance towards the elements of the teaching context over which they have control McGrath, and an awareness that learning targets, course content, tasks and assessment methods can all be negotiated, both with institutions and with learners Lamb, More broadly, local sociocultural attitudes and practices also need to be considered to avoid imposing unwelcome methods or course content on learners.

Canagarajah By whispering, note passing and writing glosses in the margins of their textbooks the Tamil students mediated the discourses of the curriculum with their own values and practices.

As Canagarajah In essence, the glosses provide evidence of a vibrant underlife in the classroom, where students collaborate in providing social, emotional and psychological sustenance and solidarity against the perceived lifelessness and reproductive tendencies of the course. Such comments suggest a caring community, and shared frustrations with the textbook and curriculum. Chick , for example, offers a different angle in discussing the collu- sion between learners and teachers in South Africa to frustrate the implementation of methods seen as imported and culturally alien.

Holliday takes up this issue in relation to a major teaching project in Egypt, cautioning against the imposition of unfamiliar pedagogic models in non-anglo contexts.

In a review of cultural conceptions of self, for instance, Markus and Kitayama contrast Western independent views, which emphasize the separateness and uniqueness of persons, with many non-Western cultures which insist on the interdependence of human beings. So while teachers in Western class- rooms often expect writers to voice their judgements, display their knowledge and give their opinions, this can create problems for learners from more collectivist cultures where students are typically oriented by their education to group member- ship and to age and gender roles rather than to individual status Ramanathan and Atkinson, Educational processes in Western contexts tend to reinforce an analytical, question- ing and evaluative stance to knowledge, encouraging students to criticize and recombine existing sources to dispute traditional wisdom and form their own points of view, while students from many Asian cultures, for instance, may favour con- serving and reproducing existing knowledge and establishing reverence for what is known through strategies such as memorization and imitation.

So, by ignoring cultural considerations, teachers may see this as plagiarism or repetition, and be misled into recasting such respect for knowledge as a developmental continuum from immaturity to maturity.

What responses did you make to these and what would you do differently now? Jordan , for instance, lists fourteen different procedures for collecting needs data, including student self-assessment, class progress tests and previous research, while Brown lists twenty-four, grouping them into six main categories: Oddly, neither mentions collecting and analysing authentic texts, now regarded as a key source of information about target situations.

Perhaps the most widely used approaches are: In practice, there has been a heavy over-reliance on questionnaires for needs analysis, despite the rather restricted reliability and one-dimensional picture that this kind of data provides. Surveys of academic writing tasks, for example, have asked both subject tutors and students to rank the tasks assigned or skills needed in particular courses but often fail to get beyond generic labels.

In fact, no two disciplines had experimental report formats that were the same in their move structures. Only through such methods as examining assignment hand-outs Horowitz, , observing classes Currie, and studying written texts themselves Hyland, is a realistic picture of target demands likely to emerge.

Do employers have a say? For these reasons it is important to involve students as participants in any needs analysis if the course is to be useful to them. In addition to such participatory needs analysis, the use of soft systems methodology has been suggested as a way of involving different stakeholders Tajino et al. This is an action research methodology borrowed from business contexts which recognizes explicitly that different individuals and groups have different interpre- tations of the world and which seeks to provide a framework to accommodate these in course design.

Decisions about what to teach and how to teach it are therefore not neutral professional questions but involve issues of authority in decision making with important consequences for learners. Taking a position of critical pragmatism discussed in Unit A1.

English for academic purposes: an advanced resource book

To show that teaching is more than initiating students unquestioningly into particular discourse com- munities, she advocates supplementing traditional needs analysis with rights analysis. Rights analysis therefore involves evaluating the findings of needs analysis, recognizing the challenges that students face and interrogating the results to create more democratic and participatory involvement by students in decision making.

The reading by Benesch in Text B9. It supports them in taking active responsibility for their learning and so resonates with the literature on autonomy in language learning e. Benson and Voller, Consider what you might do to address these issues in a context you are familiar with. From rights and needs assessments a systematic course plan has to be developed by selecting and sequencing the content and tasks that will lead to desired learning outcomes. Teachers may not always have complete freedom to choose what their courses will include, and may find their syllabus handed to them by administrators or prescribed in set texts.

But we always bring our own expertise and personal beliefs about teaching, learning and language to planning and implementing a course, and this not only mediates any ascribed syllabus but also allows a role for student negotiation in the process. This unit introduces some of the key issues in developing and implementing an EAP course.

Task A One alternative is to give students control over the content and pace of their learning within a teacher-supported classroom. How successful do you think this might be in a teaching context you are familiar with?

Goals or aims refer to general statements about what the course hopes to accomplish, the global target outcomes around which the course is organized. Discourse Studies Reader.

London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Stance and Voice in Written Academic Genres. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Corpus Applications in Applied Linguistics. Continuum Companion to Discourse Analysis.

London: Palgrave-MacMillan. Academic Discourse Across Disciplines. Frankfort: Peter Lang. Candlin, C. Writing: Texts, Processes and Practice. Berry, R.Focusing on language is not therefore an end in itself but a mean of teaching learners to use language effectively by encouraging them to experience for themselves the effect that grammatical choices have on creating meanings.

Benson and Voller, Karin Aijmer. This helps students to gain an understanding of the ways register features interact with social purposes and cultural forces in known genres before they study academic genres. Product pricing will be adjusted to match the corresponding currency. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. In the UK, for instance, only 2 per cent of the population went to university in the s compared with more than a third of the eligible age group today HEFCE, This section provides stimulating discussions of current topics of interest in EAP.

London: Longman. The research attempted to reveal the assumptions of lecturers and students to overcome cultural conflicts in their perceptions of lectures and improve lecture effectiveness.

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